The government innovations policy is a component of the social and economic policy of the government, which expresses the government’s attitude to the innovative activities, determining the objectives, vectors, and forms of activity for the public authorities in the area of science, technologies, and implementation of the achievements in the area of science and technology.
The main objectives of the innovations policy of the Russian government
The main objectives of the government innovations policy are the following:
since the early 1990ies, the European countries have been actively boosting innovative entrepreneurial activities. Special attention is paid to establishment and development of small innovative businesses
Public support of the innovations processes in the countries of Western Europe is mainly directed at the following:
The major part of funding innovations processes is constituted by the so-called indirect funding, including:
The European countries are striving to contribute to cooperation between universities and commercial companies which use innovations, acting as brokers. In these countries, there are also programs supporting priority areas of sciences, where traditional direct funding is exercised. A cluster philosophy has become widespread – to concentrate the efforts of the government on support of innovative activities and on establishment of new cooperation ties between businesses and educational institutions, which previously did not cooperate, and to contribute to scientific investigations. Clusters help companies to be competitive, as development of a new product and of equipment to manufacture it takes place in one or several integrated clusters. The clusters’ purpose is to develop new types of products, materials, and equipment to manufacture these goods and materials and to find potential customers for the results of R&D.
European governments pay serious attention to development of patent laws and the aspects of their practical application. For example, in the part of supporting small and medium-sized businesses which are involved in innovative activities, the European governments have stipulated free provision of patent information to small and medium-sized businesses.